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M. A. OKUNEVA. The Theoretical Views of the Founders of Marxism and Peasant Revolutionism

The elaboration of the strategy and tactics of the Communist movement in backward and dependent countries with their predominantly peasant population relies on the teaching of the founders of Marxism-Leninism on the peasant question and the experience accumulated by the CPSU and the other Communist and Workers' parties in establishing a firm alliance between the working class and the peasantry in present- day conditions. It is especially important to establish a close alliance of the peasants in the underdeveloped countries with the socialist world system and the international working-class movement. The article is directed against the attempts of bourgeois and petty-bourgeois ideologists to divorce the peasant struggle from that waged by the working class on a national and world-wide scale against recurrent tendencies to depict the peasantry as a more revolutionary class than the proletariat. The author also shows the utter insolvency of attempts to represent the marginal strata of town and country as the principal revolutionary force of our time.

N. I. KSENZENKO. The Solution of the Agrarian Question in the Beet- Growing Districts of the Ukraine (1917 - 1922)

The author graphically shows that the peculiarity and complexity attending the solution of the agrarian question in the beet-growing areas of the Ukraine consisted in the interaction of the agrarian and industrial problems coupled with especial acuteness of the problem of the peasants'land hunger and agrarian overpopulation. The radical restructuring of agrarian relationships initiated after the October Revolution confronted these districts with the important questions of providing the peasants with land and simultaneously ensuring adequate supplies of raw materials for the sugar- refining industry. The protracted search for acceptable forms and methods of solving these problems resulted in the replacement of the old raw material base of the sugar- refining industry represented by big private landownership with peasant beet-growing and led to the establishment of close ties between the peasants and the nationalized enterprises of the sugar-refining industry, to the development of beet-growing cooperatives as an important precondition for mass collectivization in these districts.

V. L. YEGOROV. Political and Administrative Structure of the Golden Horde

The history of the extensive state founded by the Mongols in the 13th century in the steppelands of Southern Russia is usually approached from the aspect of its external manifestations, as a result of which many questions of its internal life continue to remain insufficiently investigated to this day. The article examines the political and administrative structure of the Golden Horde. The author convincingly shows that the system of state management and administrative division of the Golden Horde basically retained its military-feudal essence outwardly clothed in new forms. Installed in high government posts and wielding much power and influence in the internal political life of the state, the big Mongol feudal lords openly favoured separatist tendencies. The logical outcome of this were frequent disturbances which began at the end of the 1350's and testified to the incipient disintegration of the Golden Horde.

V. S. PARSADANOVA. Political Struggle in the Polish Peasant Movement (1944 - 1949)

The article is devoted to an important stage in the development of the peasant movement associated with the struggle for the consolidation of people's government in Poland. The process of political polarization of the class forces in the Polish countryside and the experience of implementing the agrarian reform convinced the Polish peasants that the socio-political and cultural backwardness of the countryside could be liquidated only on the basis of socialism, in close alliance with the working class and under the leadership of its party. The political and organizational growth of the Left wing of the peasant move-

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ment, its active participation in all undertakings initiated by people's government and close cooperation with the working class helped to overcome the division within the peasant movement. Marching shoulder to shoulder with the Polish Workers' Party in the struggle for national liberation, for the abolition of feudal landownership and the monopolies, for the restoration of the country's war-ravaged economy, the Polish peasantry, joined the nation-wide effort to build socialism.

V. N. NIKIFOROV. From the History of Soviet Sinology (Commemorating the 70th Birthday of P. A. Mif)

The article is devoted to the activities of P. A. Mif, who guided the research work of Soviet Sinologists in 1927 - 1937 and participated in the preparation of a number of documents of the Communist International on diverse aspects of the Chinese revolution. P. A. Mif was the author of the earliest monographs on the history of the revolutionary movement in China and wrote the first outline history of the Communist Party of China. P. A. Mif repeatedly warned the Chinese Communists against the danger of converting the Communist Party of China into a peasant party and against its withdrawal from the leadership of the proletariat. He rendered effective assistance to Chinese revolutionaries by supporting in every way the internationalist trend within the Communist Party of China.

A. V. RAIKOV. The Indian National Revolutionaries and Marxism (1920's- 1930's)

The author traces the evolution in the world outlook of the Indian petty-bourgeois revolutionaries under the influence of international and internal developments, primarily under the impact of the Great October Socialist Revolution. Beneficent influence on their views was also exerted by the activity of the Communist International and the first Indian Communists. The article graphically shows how they gradually rid themselves of the fetters of religion, how their attention was steadily shifting from almost exclusive preoccupation with questions of tactics in the struggle against the brutal colonial regime to the elaboration of a programme of socio- economic transformations basically directed against capitalism. Perceiving the ideas of scientific socialism, the national revolutionaries began to take an active part in the working-class and peasant movement. Towards the mid-1930's this evolution logically brought the majority of the national revolutionaries into the ranks of the Communist Party of India.



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